Genomics are the diverse division of molecular biology that is directly related to the building, purpose, development, and planning of genomes. They can also be further defined as the deconstructed study of genes and the various purposes each gene offers. In order to thoroughly understand the broad topic of genomics, it can be divided into:
- Functional genomics
- Structural genomics
- Comparative genomics
- Epigenomics and
Following is a further discussion of all the above mentioned technologies that play a valid role in the mapping of genes.
Various Technologies Of Genomics
Several years ago, the technologies used for genomics were limited. They only included the methods of DNA cloning, sequencing and synthesis, protein structure analysis, polymerase chain reaction to amplify DNA and transgenic animals. However, over the years and with the development of the general use of technology in the world, genomics now include a more advanced use of technologies. Unlike the list mentioned before, these methods included molecular cytogenetics, comparison techniques, mass spectrophotometry, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and several more of the microarray technology. Some of these technologies are discussed in further detail below:
- Molecular cytogenetics and Fluorescent in situ hybridization are methods that can provide information about the association of any gene. This in turn enables experts to not only restrict but also to be able to perceive the presence of any abnormalities in chromosomes. This way they are able to minimize chances of instability in the genes.
- Genome comparison techniques, these allow experts to be able to differentiate between two of the basic things that are the genomes and their regions. This way they are able to learn and explore about the genomics and their relation with the other.
- Mass spectrophotometry, this is used to assess the overall chemical structure of the number of molecules and compounds. This is an important technology required to format gene sequence confirmation and characterize the proteins and peptide bonds that form them. This way, gene experts are able to detect and anticipate diseases long before they happen.
- Single nucleotide variations in the DNA, this is when one particular SNP allele is found to be more common in a population group. As a result of this it is often found in both the coding and non-coding DNA sequences. As a result of this, the experts are able to learn of the various kinds of human behaviors. They are able to anticipate why and how one particular individual responds to a certain environmental factor in one way and not another. These environmental factors include elements like pathogens and diseases too. As a result of this the experts can understand the genes and come up with personal and localized treatments for individuals.
Hence, with the above mentioned advancements in the field of genomic technologies several developments have been and can be made in fields like diagnostics, therapeutics and profiling of the genes. With the development and advancement of the technologies, experts have found it possible to not only predict but come up with proper treatments for people who are predisposed to certain diseases. These technologies provide them with higher chances of success in the field.
Hash Hutcherson is the author of this article. He refers to the website arrayjet.co.uk for microarray printer and other genomic technologies.